8. Substantiation Study on natural risks

The study analyzes the weather-climate phenomena and climate change, extreme events, landslides, soil erosion, fires and infrastructure, and emergency management services.

There was an increase in the effect of urban heat island in Cluj County and an increase in the intensity of extreme thermal events in the hottest areas (“hot spot”), accompanied by the impossibility of warning them due to lack of climate monitoring systems, in the cities of the county. Therefore, thermal stress increases during periods of extreme temperatures.

The study of urban heat islands identified based on the surface temperature taken through satellite images from Cluj County, highlighted the fact that the critical areas, respectively with the highest temperatures, are those of former or present industrial surfaces, as well as those of the large commercial establishments set up in recent decades, generally with large paved areas nearby.

In terms of climate change, there has been an accelerated rise in temperature manifested by statistically significant changes for most extreme temperature indices, while in the case of precipitation, the changes are weak.

Hazards and associated water risks highlight, during the analyzed period, variable intensities, determined by genetic factors, altimetric position and land use. The vulnerability of the areas adjacent to the riverbeds to floods and floods is diminished by the investment works carried out / in progress by the Water Basin Administrations. Most of the county’s surface (3,007.7 km2), which represents 45.1% of the entire territory, has an average probability of landslides, these territories being located mainly in the hilly sector dominated by a predominant geology of clays, marks and intercalations of tuffs.

The category of TAUs with large areas likely to be affected by soil erosion includes: Viișoara, Apahida, Luna, Baciu, Gârbău, Aghireșu, Călăţele.

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